University Library FACE 2006 2006 Entries- Arts and Sciences

22nd Annual Faculty Academic Contributions Virtual Exhibit

 

The following items, arranged by the author's last name, were part of the 2006 exhibit:  Anderson-Holtz, Iber-Neugebauer, and Olaniran-Warner

 

"The Origin of Naturally Occurring Perchlorate: The Role of Atmospheric Processes"

Todd A. Anderson, Associate Professor in Environmental Toxicology

Abstact: Perchlorate, an iodide uptake inhibitor, is increasingly being detected in new places and new matrices. Perchlorate contamination has been attributed largely to the manufacture and use of ammonium perchlorate (the oxidizer in solid fuel rockets) and/or the earlier use of Chilean nitrate as fertilizer (~0.1% perchlorate). However, there are regions such as the southern high plains (Texas Panhandle) where there is no clear historical or current evidence of the extensive presence of rocket fuel or Chilean fertilizer sources. The occurrence of easily measurable concentrations of perchlorate in such places is difficult to understand. In the southern high plains groundwater, perchlorate is better correlated with iodate, known to be of atmospheric origin, compared to any other species. We show that perchlorate is readily formed by a variety of simulated atmospheric processes. For example, it is formed from chloride aerosol by electrical discharge and by exposing aqueous chloride to high concentrations of ozone. We report that perchlorate is present in many rain and snow samples. This strongly suggests that some perchlorate is formed in the atmosphere and a natural perchlorate background of atmospheric origin should exist.

"Perchlorate Accumulation in Forage and Edible Vegetation"

Todd A. Anderson, Associate Professor in Environmental Toxicology

Abstact: The accumulation of perchlorate in vegetation is becoming a concern, with increasing numbers of sites reporting the presence of perchlorate in groundwater and surface water. This study investigated potential perchlorate uptake and distribution by a variety of forage and edible crops in both the laboratory and the field. Perchlorate concentrations in soybean leaves grown in the greenhouse were significantly higher than perchlorate concentrations in soybean seeds and pods. Perchlorate concentrations in alfalfa grown in sand were significantly lower than those in alfalfa grown in soil. The concentration of perchlorate in tomato was lower in the fruit than the leaves. Commercially grown wheat and alfalfa samples all contained perchlorate, 0.72-8.6 mg/kg of fresh weight (FW) in the wheat stems, 0.71-4.4 mg/kg of FW in the wheat heads, and 2.9 mg/kg of FW in alfalfa. All field garden samples tested (including cucumber, cantaloupe, and tomato) that were irrigated with perchlorate-tainted water contained perchlorate at various concentrations ranging from 0.040 to 1.65 mg/kg of FW. Bioconcentration factors (BCF), ratios of plant fresh weight concentrations to estimated or measured groundwater concentrations [(g/kg of FW)/g/L], were all in the same order of magnitude ranging from 215 ± 126 for wheat stems to 233 ± 264 for wheat heads and to 380 ± 89 for alfalfa. BCF for garden fruit samples were much lower (0.5-20). Results from this study highlight the potential for perchlorate exposure by routes other than drinking water.

"Preconcentration/Preelution Ion Chromatography for the Determination of Perchlorate in Complex Samples"

Todd A. Anderson, Associate Professor in Environmental Toxicology

Abstact: The determination of perchlorate in complex matrices by ion chromatography (IC) with an online preconcentration and preelution technique is discussed. The method was applied to different sample types containing large concentrations of matrix anions that would otherwise interfere with analysis via conventional IC. The present approach was highly effective in removing most of the matrix anions and was thus resistant to the interferences commonly encountered in a high ionic strength background. Method performance was evaluated by analyzing for low-level perchlorate in synthetic high ionic strength solutions, tissue extracts, and hydroponic nitrate fertilizer samples. Not only is it easier to practice the present method compared to USEPA Method 314.0, but for most of these samples the present approach provided equal to or better recovery of perchlorate than Method 314.0. With a sample of specific conductance 12,650 μS cm-1, for example, the present method provided a perchlorate recovery of 101% at the 25 μg L-1 level versus 89% by EPA Method 314.0. Method detection limits of perchlorate in hydroponic fertilizer samples with this method (130-190 μg kg-1) are the lowest thus far reported. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (19 refs.)

"Temporal and Spatial Variation of Perchlorate in Streambed Sediments: Results from In-situ Dialysis Samplers"

Todd A. Anderson, Associate Professor in Environmental Toxicology

Abstact: The fate of perchlorate (ClO4-) in streambed sediments is becoming a concern due to the increasing number of groundwater and surface water contamination sites in the United States. Dialysis samplers were deployed at three sites over a period of 1 year to determine the vertical distribution of ClO4- in sediment pore water. Results indicated that the spatial and temporal ClO4- penetration into sediments could be affected by numerous factors, such as temperature, microbial degradation, ClO4- surface water concentration, and sediment physico-geological properties. In general, maximum ClO 4- penetration into sediments at the studied sites was 30 cm below the sediment-water surface. The vertical sequential depletion of electron acceptors in sediments suggested that microbial reduction was responsible for ClO4- depletion in stream sediments. Biodegradation of ClO4- occurred over a seasonally variable active depth zone of 1-10 cm. Results implied that there was a rapid natural attenuation potential of perchlorate in saturated near-surface sediments. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (25 refs.)

"Thyroid function and reproductive success in rodents exposed to perchlorate via food and water."

Todd A. Anderson, Associate Professor in Environmental Toxicology

Abstact:

"The Poincaré Metric and Isoperimetric Inequalties for Hyperbolic Polygons," Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 357 No. 10. 3905-3932.

Roger Barnard, Mathematics

Bio: Roger W. Barnard received his B.S. and M.A. from Kent State University in 1966 and 1968 respectively. He received his PhD in mathematics from the University of Maryland in 1971. He had a two year NSF Post doctorate at the University of Kentucky from 1971-1973. He came to Texas Tech University as a visiting lecturer in the Fall of 1973. He has held visiting positions for at least a semester at the University of Kentucky, Indiana University and University of California, San Diego. He has been a professor of mathematics and statistics at Texas Tech University since 1986. Dr. Barnard's research interests have been diverse. The primary fields have been in geometric function theory in complex analysis and special function theory of mathematical physics. He has published papers in statistics, control theory, differential equations, real analysis and several complex variables. He has been the complex analysis and special function theory editor for the Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics since 1991.

Abstact: "We prove several isoperimetric inequalities for the conformal radius (or equivalently for the Poincaré density) of polygons on the hyperbolic plane. Our results include, as limit cases, the isoperimetric inequality for the conformal radius of Euclidean $n$-gons conjectured by G. Pólya and G. Szegö in 1951 and a similar inequality for the hyperbolic $n$-gons of the maximal hyperbolic area conjectured by J. Hersch. Both conjectures have been proved in previous papers by the third author."

"Our approach uses the method based on a special triangulation of polygons and weighted inequalities for the reduced modules of trilaterals developed by A. Yu. Solynin. We also employ the dissymmetrization transformation of V. N. Dubinin. As an important part of our proofs, we obtain monotonicity and convexity results for special combinations of the Euler gamma functions, which appear to have a significant interest in their own right."

"Concentration of Area in Half-Planes," Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 133, No. 7. 2091-2099.

Roger Barnard, Professor in Mathematics

Abstact: Let S denote the class of functions f(z) = z +a2z2 +. . . which are analytic and univalent in the unit disk U. The authors solve the problem of determining the sharp lower bound for the area of f(U) that is concentrated in a half-plane; i.e., for real d, they determine the sharp lower bound for the quantity Af (d) = Area (f(U)\H+d ), where H+d = {w: Rew > d}.

Let A(d) = inf{Af (d): f 2 S}. Then A(d) = _ on (−1, d0], A(d) decreases continuously to 0 on the interval [d0, 12], and A(d) = 0 on [12,+1), where d0 = −1.1173 . . . is the solution to a complicated equation involving d. (Since z/(1+d) maps U onto the half plane {w: Re < 12}, it is clear that A(d) = 0 on [12,+1).) For d0 < d < 12, there is a unique extremal function fd(z) that is too complicated to be stated here; for d < d0, the unique extremal function is fd(z) = z, and for d = d0, both functions are extremal.

In all cases, the ranges of the extremal functions are described. They all possess Steiner symmetry and P´olya symmetry. If fd(U) is bounded, then fd(U) = U; if fd(U) is unbounded, then it properly contains the half-plane {w: Rew < d} and has a single symmetrical “bubble” attached on the right.

"Economic Reforms and Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America"

Glen Biglaiser, Assistant Professor in Political Science

Bio: Glen A. Biglaiser is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science. Biglaiser earned his Ph.D. from UCLA. His research interests are Comparative Politics, Latin American Politics, and Economic and Political Issues in the Developing World. He is the author of: Guardians of the Nation? Economists, Generals, and Economic Reform in Latin America and has published extensively on issues of political and economic development.

Abstact: Over the past two decades Latin America has experienced a foreign direct investment (FDI) revival (Birch 1991, 149; Grosse 2001, 119). Concurrent with renewed interest in FDI, most Latin American countries have implemented market-oriented reforms. Capital shortages, caused in part by protectionist, import-substitution industrialization (ISI) policies in the 1940s 1970s, led many countries to shift economic policy course in the 1980s. Latin American policy makers hoped that initiating reforms would signal their governments creditworthiness and good intentions to prospective foreign investors (Rodrik 1996, 28). Despite the breadth of new investments and adoption of economic reforms, FDI has varied among countries. Do different market-oriented reforms affect FDI inflows to Latin American countries?

"Swinging the Vernacular: Jazz and African American Modernist Literature"

Michael Borshuk, Assistant Professor in English

Bio: This is at my second year at Texas Tech, after graduate studies at the University of Alberta in Canada. I teach African American literature, but also write on jazz regularly for Coda Magazine.

Abstact: This book charts a jazz-influenced tradition in African American modernist writing, between the 1920s and the 1970s. Looking at the relationship between jazz and African American writing over changes in musical styles, the work considers expansively the music 's aesthetic and political influence.

"Voices from Vietnam: Eye-witness Accounts of the War, 1954-1975"

Laura Calkins, Assistant Archivist

Bio: Dr. Laura M Calkins holds degrees from Michigan State University, the London School of Economics, and the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), London, as well as a doctorate in the Modern International History of Asia from the University of London, England. She has held a Fulbright Scholarship to the United Kingdom and a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship in radiological physics at the University of Michigan.

Abstact: Between 1965 and 1973 the Vietnam War claimed over 58,000 American lives, many thousands more Allied troops from Australia, New Zealand, and South Korea, as well as hundreds of thousands of troops and civilians in North and South Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Collected here are the first-hand stories of men and women who witnessed and participated in the Vietnam War. From operations on the ground in Southeast Asia to the domestic upheaval in America, these compelling accounts bring the reader to the forefront of America 's longest war.

"Art work from the exhibit "Captain Cook And The Spirit of Discovery"

Bruce Cammack, Associate Librarian for Rare Books

Bio: Since my arrival at Texas Tech University in 1987, one of my missions and passions has been to lower as many barriers between the holdings of Rare Books and the public. The Science Spectrum Exhibit provided an ideal venue, presenting to the people of the South Plains the opportunity to examine, enjoy and learn from a gathering of maps, prints, and artifacts, many of which were over 200 years old and literally from the other side of the world.

Abstact: Interactive world map displayed at the Science Spectrum, Lubbock, Texas illustrating Captain James Cook 's three voyages to the Pacific (1768-1779). Original map provided by Rare Books, TTU Libraries. Panel and stand created by the following Science Spectrum staff: Elton Prater, Greg Watson, Leroy Gomez and Brad Sumner.

"Deep Time and the Texas High Plains: History & Geology"

Paul Carlson, Professor in History

Bio: Paul H. Carlson is a professor in the Department of History.  Carlson has published nine books and several dozen articles, essays, and book reviews.  His most recent book is Deep Time and the Texas High Plains: History and Geology (Texas Tech, 2005).  Another book, The Plains Indians (1998), was a History Book Club selection and was published in a French language translation (Paris, 2004).  In 2005, he received the Professing Excellence Award (for outstanding teaching) from Residence Life students.  In 2000, he received from the College of Arts and Sciences its Outstanding Researcher Award.  Carlson has served on advisory committees for the Handbook of Texas, the Texas Department of Parks and Wildlife, and several historical associations.  He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Texas State Historical Association, and he is a Fellow of the organization.  In 1993, Carlson received the President's Excellence in Teaching Award at Texas Tech, and twice in recent years students have named him the history department's Outstanding Faculty member.  He is director of The Texas Tech Center for the Southwest.

Abstact:

"Market Matters: Applied Rhetoric Studies and Free Market Competition"

Locke Carter, Associate Professor in English

Bio: Locke Carter teaches courses in argumentation, distance education, hypertext, usability research, publication management, and rhetoric & technology in Technical Communication and Rhetoric. He wrote the proposal for, and currently manages, his program 's PhD degree offered via distance education. He recently received one of three STC development grants for a proposal to study the value of communication activities within organizations. Before coming to Texas Tech, he was the CEO of the Austin-based Daedalus Group, Inc.

Abstact: Much of the theory underlying technical communication, rhetoric, composition, and college English in general comes from a decidedly socialist perspective. Thus, these fields have disenfranchised themselves from the larger world-view free-market, competitive, and capitalistic. Market Matters addresses this problem by asserting a theoretical and practical stance based on free market mechanisms and arguing that a) writing disciplines have market value, which socialist approaches to rhetoric cannot recognize and b) markets are inherently rhetorical, creating information, being subject to socially-constructed trends, and persuading participants. In other words, the market isn 't "out there, " but is a natural, logical domain for rhetorical study.

"'Neuroanatomy and Dentition of Camarasaurus lentus' in Thunder-Lizards: The Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs"

Sankar Chatterjee, Horn Professor in Museum Science and Geosciences

Bio: Sankar Chatterjee is Paul Whitfield Horn Profeessor of Geosciences and Curator of Paleontology at the Museum of TTU. He has led several expeditions to Antarctica, China, India, and the American Southwest in search of the dinosaurs and early birds. He has published more than 100 articles and three books and his research has been funded by the NSF, Narional Geographic Society, and Smithsonian Institute. His research interests include plate tectonics, mass extinction, impact cratering process, Mesozoic vertebrates, and flight of animals.

Abstact: A beautiful skull of Camarasaurus, a Late Jurassic (about 160 million years ago) sauropod dinosaur from Utah provides critical information about its neuroanatomy, tooth morphology, and tooth replacement. The endocast reveals the primitive architecture of the brain, which is short, narrow, and deep, with prominent cerebral and pontine flexure. Tooth morphology and wear patern indicate that Camarasaurus consumed coarse, fibrous plant material. The tooth replacement pattern is from back to the front of the jaw as in other reptiles.

"American Public Policy: An Introduction, Eighth Edition"

Clarke Cochran, Professor in Political Science

Bio: Clarke E. Cochran in Professor in Political Science and Adjunct Professor, Department of Health Organization Management at Texas Tech University. He specializes in religion and politics, political philosophy, and health care policy. Dr. Cochran received his Ph.D. from Duke University in 1971 and has taught at Texas Tech since 1970. He has won the President's Award for Excellence in Teaching. His current research interests include religious institutions and health care policy, Catholic social theory and health care reform, church and state controversies, and liberalism and religious participation in politics.

Abstact: American Public Policy: An Introduction is an introductory undergraduate text that engages students' interest with its unique emphasis on specific, substantive issues of public policy. This text analyzes American public policies in a historical context that allows students to evaluate, analyze, and debate whether established policies are successful or if alternative policies could better serve the American public. The discussion kindled by American Public Policy educates students on the practical methods of public policy analysis while allowing them to apply their knowledge to real life policies.

"How Good People Do Bad Things: Aristotle on the Misdeeds of the Virtuous," Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, vol 28 (Summer 2005): 233-256

Howard Curzer, Professor in Philosophy

Bio: Howard J. Curzer received his B.A. and M.A. degrees in mathematics from Wesleyan University and his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Texas at Austin. He specializes in ancient philosophy, ethics, and biomedical ethics. His recent publications include "The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research" (Journal of Medicine and Philosophy), and "Admirable Immortality, Dirty Hands, Ticking Bombs, and Torturing Innocents," (Southern Journal of Philosophy). He has edited a textbook entitled Ethical Theory and Moral Problems (Wadsworth, 1999), and is rpesently writing a book tentaively entitled Aristotle's Virtue Ethics.

Abstact: Some interpreters take Aristotle to be presenting an idealized picture of the virtuous person, but I show that Aristotle's virtuous person may perform wrong acts not only (1) involuntarily or (2) under unedurable pressure, but also in more interesting ways. (3) Sporadically, virtuous people perform out-of-character wrong acts. (4) People may also have character flaws small enough that they remain virtuous, but large enough to allow rare, but predictable, in-character wrong acts. (5) Indeed, some people are virtuous to a fault. Their Virtues drive them to excess. (6) In people with some natural virtue and some vices, a virtue and vice may "overlap." If the vice dominates, the person may frequently act wrongly, even though the virtue remains intact. (7) Finally, in unusual moral dilemma situations the sort of act that virtuous people shum is morally required. Some Aristotelian virtuous people may act rightly with dirty hands, but others act admirable immorally, following their habits and performing virtuous, but wrong acts.

"Automated Low Pressure Carbonate Eluent Ion Chromatography System with Postsuppressor Carbon Dioxide Removal for the Analysis of Atmospheric Gases and Particles," Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol. 39 No. 11, November 2005: 1072-1084

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: We present a low-pressure, automated, semi-continuous Gas-Particle Ion Chromatograph to measure soluble ionogenic gases and soluble ionic constituents of PM2.5. The system utilizes a short separation column, an isocratic carbonate eluent and post suppressor CO2 removal. Measured constituents include ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate in the particle fraction, and nitric acid, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia among soluble gases. Two independent sampling channels are used. In one channel, a wet denuder collects soluble gases. In the second channel, following removal of large particles by a cyclone and soluble gases by a wet denuder, a hydrophobic filter-based particle collector collects and extracts the soluble components of PM2.5. The aqueous particle extract is aspirated by a peristaltic pump onto serial cation and anion preconcentrator columns. Gas samples are similarly loaded onto another set of serial cation and anion preconcentrator columns. The cation preconcentrator is eluted with NaOH and the evolved NH3 is passed across a membrane device whence it diffuses substantially into a deionized water receptor stream; the conductivity of the latter provides a measure of NH3 (NH4+). The anion preconcentrator column(s) are subjected to automated periodic analysis by ion chromatography. This system provides data every 30 min for both particles (NO3−, SO42− and NH4+) and gases (HNO3, SO2 and NH3). Gas and particle extract samples are each collected for 15 min. The analyses of the gas and particle samples are staggered 15 min apart. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) for NO3−, SO42− and NH4+ are 2.6, 5.3, and 2.1 ng/m3, respectively.

"A Chemiluminescence-based Continuous Flow Aqueous Ozone Analyzer Using Photoactivated Chromotropic Acid," Talanta, 66 (2005): 823-830

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: Ozone has become the oxidant of choice for water disinfection, especially in large water treatment facilities. This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of ozone content by reaction with photoactivated chromotropic acid (CA, 4,5-dihydroxynapthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid), which results in intense chemiluminescence (CL). Freshly ozonated water from a recirculating ozonizer/reservoir is injected into a carrier stream of deionized water in the flow-injection mode. This flow mixes with a stream of photoactivated CA solution in a spiral cell placed directly on top of an inexpensive miniature (8 mm diameter active area) photomultiplier tube (PMT). Alkaline CA is photoactivated by passing it through a FEP-Teflon® coil (residence time ~50 s) wrapped around a 1 W UV lamp emitting at 254 nm; without photoactivation, the signal is ~70-fold lower. The S/N = 3 limit of detection for aqueous ozone is 3 μg1-1 and good response slope is obtained up to an ozone concentration of 1.4 mg 1-1, the highest that could be made in this study. The response obeyed a quadratic equation with r2=0.9984. No interference from permanganate ion is observed. The proposed system was applied to the monitoring of ozonation status of a playa lake water that exhibited significant ozone demand.

"Continuous Collection of Soluble Atmospheric Particles with a Wetted Hydrophilic Filter," Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 24, December 15, 2005: 8031-8040

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: Approximately one-third of the area (14-mm diameter of a 25-mm diameter) of a 5-μm uniform pore size polycarbonate filter is continuously wetted by a 0.25 mL/min water mist. The water forms a continuous thin film on the filter and percolates through it. The flowing water substantially reduces the effective pore size of the filter. At the operational air sampling flow rate of 1.5 standard liters per minute, such a particle collector (PC) efficiently captures particles down to very small size. As determined by fluorescein-tagged NaCl aerosol generated by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator, the capture efficiency was 97.7+% for particle aerodynamic diameters ranging from 0.28 to 3.88 μm. Further, 55.3 and 80.3% of 25- and 100-nm (NH4)2SO4 particles generated by size classification with a differential mobility analyzer were respectively collected by the device. The PC is integrally coupled with a liquid collection reservoir. The liquid effluent from the wetted filter collector, bearing the soluble components of the aerosol, can be continuously collected or periodically withdrawn. The latter strategy permits the use of a robust syringe pump for the purpose. Coupled with a PM2.5 cyclone inlet and a membrane-based parallel plate denuder at the front end and an ion chromatograph at the back end, the PC readily operated for at least 4-week periods without filter replacement or any other maintenance.

"Determination of Acetone in Breath," Analytica Chimica Acta, 535 (2005): 189-199.

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: A light-emitting diode (LED)-based photometric method for the measurement of gaseous acetone in human breath is presented. The detection chemistry is based on the reaction of acetone with alkaline salicyaldehyde to form a colored product, which absorbs in the blue and can be monitored with GaN-based LEDs with emission centered at 465 nm. Gaseous acetone in breath is sampled with a porous membrane based diffusion scrubber (DS). The collected sample in the continuously flowing water carrier reacts with the reagent solution. We have used two approaches to collect breath acetone: the use of a face mask and a Mylar balloon as a collective bag. With the face mask approach, the expired air can be measured over long periods without major subject discomfort, balloon collection (51) permits four measurements from a single fill. The LED-based liquid core waveguide (LCW) absorbance detector utilized sapphire ball lenses to prevent exposure of other optical components to a hot alkaline reagent solution. The high refractive index of the final mixture permitted the use of an inexpensive fluorinated ethylene copolymer (FEP Teflon®) tube as a 10 cm long LCW. The limit of detection (S/N=3) is 14 ppbv gaseous acetone, and the linear range extends to 1.21 ppmv. The concentration range in 11 volunteer subjects ranged from 176 to 518 ppbv.

2005 Environmental Science & Technology Science Paper of the Year

"Gas Phase Ion Association Provides Increased Selectivity and Sensitivity for Measuring Perchlorate by Mass Spectrometry," Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 15, August 1, 2005: 4829-4835

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: Perchlorate (ClO4-) competitively inhibits the uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland. Trace quantities of perchlorate are being increasingly detected in food and environmental samples. There is great concern that perchlorate contamination may be far more widespread than believed until now. Increasingly sensitive and unambiguous methods are needed for measuring perchlorate. We report here an ion chromatography-ion association-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (IC/IA-ESI-MS) method of substantially greater selectivity and sensitivity than other available single-stage MS approaches. A long chain dipositive cationic agent (D2+) is added postcolumn in low concentration. This ion associates with perchlorate, even in the gas phase. Perchlorate is, thus, detected as DClO4+ in the positive ion mode at an m/z value between 300 and 400 (depending on the choice of D2+). This results in much better S/N and selectivity, as compared to detecting 35ClO4- at m/z 99, where H34SO4- also responds. We show results for various dicationic agents which vary in their selectivity and affinity for ClO4-, typically being at least 1 order of magnitude more selective for ClO4- over HSO4-. For a 100-μL injected standard, limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) are as good as 25 ng/L on a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. Calibration for concentrations up to 100 μg/L displays an r2 value of 0.9993. We show applicability to various real samples. A number of the studied reagents are suitable for such applications.

Co-author, and PhD student in Dasgupta's Research Group, P. Kalyani Martinelango received Award of Excellence from the American Chemical Society for recognition of work done as a graduate student.

"Measurement of Gaseous and Aqueous Trace Formaldehyde: Revisiting the Pentanedione Reaction and Field Applications," Analytica Chimica Acta, 531 (2005): 51-68

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: The measurement of atmospheric formaldehyde has been of interest to the corresponding author for the last two decades. The initial approach based on the Hantzsch reaction with 2,4-pentanedione (PD) and ammonium acetate was later abandoned in favor of 1,3-cyclohexanedione (CHD) as the β-diketone because of an order of magnitude better limits of detection (LOD). Subsequently, it was discovered that at very high H2O2 to HCHO ratios, the CHD chemistry has a perceptible positive interference from H2O2.  In this paper, we review techniques for the rationale to return to PD-based chemistry, and show that nearly equivalent LODs (16 nM aqueous, 3 pmol, 70 pptv gaseous) can be obtained with reagent components that are separated rather than a single mixed reagent in combination with a fluorescence detector that utilizes multiple high intensity light emitting diodes (LEDs) for excitation without the benefit of a Teflon AF based waveguide, the use of which has become more difficult due to legal restrictions. We present design and construction details of both a ground-based instrument and an instrument intended for aircraft use and provide illustrative field data for both.

"The Origin of Naturally Occurring Perchlorate: The Role of Atmospheric Processes," Environmental Science & Technology, 39 (2005): 1569-1575

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: Perchlorate, an iodide uptake inhibitor, is increasingly being detected in new places and new matrices. Perchlorate contamination has been attributed largely to the manufacture and use of ammonium perchlorate (the oxidizer in solid fuel rockets) and/or the earlier use of Chilean fertilizer sources. The occurrence of easily measurable concentrations or perchlorate in such places is difficult to understand. In the southern high plains groundwater, perchlorate is better correlated with iodate, known to be of atmospheric origin, compared to any other species. We show that perchlorate is readily formed by a variety of simulated atmospheric processes. For example, it is formed from chloride aerosol by electrical discharge and by exposing aqueous chloride to high concentrations of ozone. We report that perchlorate is present in many rain and snow samples. This strongly suggests that some perchlorate is formed in the atmosphere and a natural perchlorate background of atmospheric origin should exist.

"Perchlorate and Iodide in Dairy and Breast Milk," Environmental Science & Technology, 39 (2005): 2011-2017

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: Perchlorate inhibits iodide uptake and may impair thyroid and neurodevelopment in infants. Recently, we unambiguously identified the presence of perchlorate in all seven brands of dairy milk randomly purchased from grocery stores in Lubbock, TX. How widespread is perchlorate in milk? Perchlorate in 47 dairy milk samples from 11 states and in 36 human milk samples from 18 states were measured. Iodide was also measured in a number of the samples. Perchlorate was detectable in 81 of 82 samples. The dairy and breast milk means were, respectively, 2.0 and 10.5 μg/L with the corresponding maximum values of 11 and 92 μg/L. Perchlorate is present in virtually all milk samples, the average concentration in breast milk is five times higher than in dairy milk. Although the number of available measurements are few at this point, for breast milk samples with a perchlorate content greater than 10 μg/L, the iodide content is linearly correlated with the inverse of the perchlorate concentration with a r2 of >0.9 (n = 6). The presence of perchlorate in the milk lowers the iodide content and may impair thyroid development in infants. On the basis of limited available data, iodide levels in breast milk may be significantly lower than it was two decades ago. Recommended iodine intake by pregnant and lactating women may need to be revised upward.

2nd Most-Accessed Article, Jan.-June 2005, Environmental Science & Technology

"Preconcentration/Preelution Ion Chromatography for the Determination of Perchlorate in Complex Samples," Talanta, 65 (2005): 750-755

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Bio: Purnendu Dasgupta is a native of India but he has spent virtually all his life in the US. He has never been quite sure what to do.  In his mother tongue, Bengali, he is a well-published poet (in various magazines as well as a book). He worked as a photographer, got a diploma in electrical engineering and finally fell in love with Analytical Chemistry, getting a PhD (LSU, 1977).  He came to TTU in 1981.

Abstact: The determination of perchlorate in complex matrices by ion chromatography (IC) with an online preconcentration and preelution technique is discussed. The method was applied to different sample types containing large concentrations of matrix anions that would otherwise interfere with analysis via conventional IC. The present approach was highly effective in removing most of the matrix anions and was thus resistant to the interferences commonly encountered in a high ionic strength background. Method performance was evaluated by analyzing for low-level perchlorate in synthetic high ionic strength solutions, tissue extracts, and hydroponic nitrate fertilizer samples. Not only is it easier to practice the present method compared to USEPA Method 314.0, but for most of these samples the present approach provided equal to or better recovery of perchlorate than Method 314.0. With a sample of specific conductance 12,650 μS cm−1, for example, the present method provided a perchlorate recovery of 101% at the 25 μgL−1 level versus 89% by EPA Method 314.0. Method detection limits in hydroponic fertilizer samples with this method (130-190 μg kg-1) are the lowest thus far reported.

"A Speciation-Capable Field Instrument for the Measurement of Arsenite and Arsenate in Water," Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 15, August 1, 2005: 4765-4773

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: Hydride generation to form arsine and in-line preconcentration tne into an alkaline KMnO4 receiver followed by molybdenum blue (MB) colorimetric determination of the arsenate formed is proposed for the highly sensitive and separate measurement of total inorganic As and As(III). Reduction of As to AsH3 is carried out by NaBH4; when the reduction is carried out at pH 1, all the inorganic As is reduced to AsH3, and when carried out at pH 7, only As(III) is reduced. Reductions at the two different pH levels are carried out in two different arsine generators simultaneously using constant addition of NaBH4 with solenoid pumps. The AsH3 is collected by individual porous membrane diffusion scrubbers filled with a stationary solution of KMnO4, and the contents of the two scrubbers sequentially enter a flow analysis stream. MB is formed by merging with an ammonium molybdate-ascorbic acid reagent, passing through a heated reactor, and is then measured by a LED/photodiode-based absorbance detector. Robustness was confirmed for total As using three types of certified natural water samples. Speciation analysis data from well water samples analyzed by this method agree well with HPLC-ICPMS measurements in a different laboratory. The system has been successfully applied to field measurements of As(III) and As(V), where levels were significantly below 1 μg/L. For a 20-mL sample, the limits of detection (LODs) for this inexpensive instrument are 0.3 μg/L for both As(III) and total As. When an 80-mL sample is analyzed, LODs are 0.07 μg/L As(III) and 0.09 μg/L total As. The general approach should be applicable to many other analyte species of interest that can be isolated from the matrix by the formation of a suitable volatile compound that can be recaptured.

"Summertime Ambient Formaldehyde in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Nashville, Atlanta, Houston, Philadelphia and Tampa," Environmental Science & Technology, 39 (2005): 4767-4783

Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Horn Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry

Abstact: First, we briefly review the atmospheric chemistry and previous intercomparison measurements for HCHO, with special reference to the diffusion scrubber Hantzsch reaction based fluorescence instrument used in the field studies reported herein. Then we discuss summertime HCHO levels in five major U.S. cities measured over 1999-2002, primarily from ground-based measurements. Land-sea breeze circulations play a major role in observed concentrations in coastal cities. Very high HCHO peak mixing ratios were observed in Houston (>47 ppb) where the overall median mixing ratio was 3.3 ppb; the corre sponding values in Atlanta were ~>18 and 7.9 ppb, respectively. The peak and median mixing ratios (9.3 and 2.3 ppb) were the lowest for Tampa, where the land-sea breeze also played an important role. In several cities, replicate HCHO measurements were made by direct spectroscopic instruments; the instruments were located kilometers from each other and addressed very different heights (e.g., 106 vs 10 m). Even under these conditions, there was remarkable qualitative and often quantitative agreement between the different instruments, when they were all sampling the same air mass within a short period of each other. Local chemistry dominates how HCHO is formed and dissipated. The high concentrations in Houston resulted from emissions near the ship channel; the same formaldehyde plume was measured at two sites and clearly ranged over tens of kilometers. Local micrometeorology is another factor. HCHO patterns measured at a high-rise site in downtown Nashville were very much in synchrony with other ground sites 12 km away until July 4 celebrations whence HCHO concentrations at the downtown site remained elevated for several days and nights. The formation and dissipation of HCHO in the different cities are discussed in terms of other concurrently measured species and meteorological vectors. The vertical profiles of HCHO in and around Tampa under several different atmospheric conditions are presented. The extensive data set represented in this paper underscores that urban HCHO measurements can now be made easily; the agreement between disparate instruments (that are independently calibrated or rely on the absolute absorption cross section) further indicates that such measurements can be done reliably and accurately for this very important atmospheric species. The data set presented here can be used as a benchmark for future measurements if the use of formaldehyde precursors such as methanol or methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as oxygenated fuel additives increases in the future.

"Anthropology 1301: Understanding Multicultural America," College Teaching, vol. 53 no. 2 (Spring 2005): 65-70

Philip A. Dennis, Professor in Anthropology

Bio: Philip A. Dennis has taught anthropology at Tech since 1974. He has done fieldwork in Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, and is the author of The Miskitu People of Awastara (UT Press, 2004). Along with other anthropological faculty, he teaches "Understanding Multicultural America."

Abstact: A unique introductory anthropology course at Texas Tech University introduces students to cultural diversity in the United States. Student read etnographies--fieldwork-based descriptions of Hispanic, African American, and other communities--and then do ethnographic research of their own in the local community. This popular course encourages students to develop intersubjectivity: understanding others by entering into cultural worlds, if only briefly.

"Investor Responses to IMF Program Suspensions: Is Noncompliance Costly?"

Martin Edwards, Assistant Professor in Political Science

Bio: Martin S. Edwards specializes in international relations, with a focus on international political economy and international institutions. Professor Edwards received his Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 2003 and has taught at Texas Tech since 2002. Edwards is the recipient of teaching awards from both the Department of Housing and Residence Life and the American Political Science Association.

Abstact: This article reinvestigates the "catalytic " effect of IMF programs on investment controlling for the implementation of the program. I find mixed evidence that good implementation fails to slow capital flight. I find consistently strong evidence that failed Fund programs produce capital flight. The findings suggest that we should think about the Fund 's influence (both positive and negative) in light of how capital markets respond to its signals.

"Declaration of Sentiments and Horse Chestnut Leaves"

Carol Fitzgerald Flueckiger, Assistant Professor of Art

Bio: Circa Gallery in Minneapolis represents my work. In 2002 I was featured in a solo show titled Shaded & Clear and I will be included in a two-person exhibit for fall 2006. For over a decade my work has been accepted in juried and invitational exhibitions. In 2000 I received an Art in Public Spaces Award from the University of New Mexico and in 2004 I was nominated for the Texas Prize, a $30,000 award given by Arthouse at the Jones Center in Austin, Texas.

Abstact: This work is informed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton's 19th Century speech "The Declaration of Sentiments" delivered at the first women's rights conference in the world. I collaborate with nature to create my images by laying transparencies of text onto wood panels that have been treated with cyanotype, an early photographic process, and then exposing the coated panels to the burning Texas sun. The opposite sides of the blocks are imprinted with horse chestnut leaves gathered from a tree outside of her historic home. The tree dates back to the time when she wrote the speech.>

"Columbus' First Voyage: Latin Selections from Peter Martyr's De Orbe Novo"

Edward George, Professor in Classical and Modern Languages and Literature, Emeritus

Bio: Edward V. George (Ph.D., Classics, Wisconsin), Professor Emeritus, served as Graduate Advisor in the Classics MA program. He has worked with teachers on material bridging between Latin and Spanish, and between Roman Culture and Hispanic America. He is a former Vice President of the American Clasical League, and the Immediate Past President of the American Association for Neo-Latin Studies. He has written extensively on Juan Luis Vives, the 16th century Spanish humanist and Latinist.

Abstact: Columbus’s First Voyage, co-edited by Constance P. Iacona and Edward V. George, contains illustrated excerpts from Peter Martyr’s Latin De Orbe Novo, or On the New World (1493 & ff.), narrating Columbus’s first transatlantic voyage, with Introduction, grammatical and historical notes, practice sentences, and glossary, suitable for use in intermediate level Latin classes. Latin programs usually start by assuming that practically all Latin writings which deserve attention come from the two centuries before and after the birth of Christ. We offer this volume as vivid proof that engaging and important writings can be found far beyond those conventional chronological boundaries.

"The Effect of Model Similarity on Girls' Motor Performance," Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 24 (2), April 2005

Kent Griffin, Instructor in Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences

Bio: Kent Griffin is an instructor in Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences. In addition to teaching in the department Kent is also the coordinator of the Personal Fitness and Wellness Program. Kent is currently a Doctoral student in the College of Education and hopes to earn his degree in May 2007. Kents research interests are in curriculum and instruction in physical education.

Abstact: This investigation examined the effect of model similarity on girls ' acquisition, retention, transfer, and transfer strategies of a novel motor task. Forty girls (mean age = 10 years) were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (model skill level) X 2 (model sex) factorial design using four treatment groups: (a) male skilled, (b) male learning, (c) female skilled, and (d) female learning. Quantitative data revelaed that participants observing a female model or a learning model transferred significanlty more learning strategies than did participants observing a male or skilled model. Qualitative results underscored the need to include models of similar sex, as well as learning models when instructing girls in motor skills.

"Broken Covenants and the American Pantheon: Church and State 25 Years after The Political Pulpit" in The Political Pulpit Revisited"

Mark Gring, Assistant Professor in Communication Studies

Bio: Mark Gring grew up as the child of missionary parents in Guatemala and El Salvador, earned his PhD at The Ohio State University in 1993, and teaches rhetorical theory and persuasion in the department of Communication Studies at Texas Tech University. His research focuses on the study of ideology, rhetorical epistemology, and the influence of religious argument on sociopolitical change. His recent work analyzes the religious arguments in post 9-11 sermons.

Abstact: This essay contends that Roderick Hart s (1977) rhetorical contract between church and state never existed and, instead, he discovered a statist religion with its own discourse. This statist religious perspective opposes the covenantal religious perspective that characterizes Judeo-Christianity and the early American understanding of church and state relations. Current church and state relations in the United States, then, are characterized by the conflict that pits the statist religion against historic Judeo-Christianity. The paper concludes that the U.S. church must regain its covenantal perspective before it has substantive solutions to offer to a country that teeters on the edge of totalitarianism.

"The Poincaré Metric and Isoperimetric Inequalties for Hyperbolic Polygons," Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 357 No. 10: 3905-3932

Petros Hadjicostas, Assistant Professor in Mathematics

Bio: Petros Hadjicostas received a B.S. and a M.S. from the Department of Mathematics at Carnegie Mellon University, and a M.S. and a Ph.D. from the Department of Statistics of the same university. He has taught at the University of Cyprus and at SUNY College at Brockport.  Dr. Hadjicostas came to Texas Tech University in 2001, where he is currently an Assistant Professor. His research interests in Statistics are Bayesian Statistics, Logistic Regression, and Simpson's Paradox. In addition, his research interests in Mathematics include (among others) isoperimetric inequalities in hyperbolic geometry, analysis of sorting algorithms, and production theory.

Abstact: "We prove several isoperimetric inequalities for the conformal radius (or equivalently for the Poincaré density) of polygons on the hyperbolic plane. Our results include, as limit cases, the isoperimetric inequality for the conformal radius of Euclidean $n$-gons conjectured by G. Pólya and G. Szegö in 1951 and a similar inequality for the hyperbolic $n$-gons of the maximal hyperbolic area conjectured by J. Hersch. Both conjectures have been proved in previous papers by the third author."

"Our approach uses the method based on a special triangulation of polygons and weighted inequalities for the reduced modules of trilaterals developed by A. Yu. Solynin. We also employ the dissymmetrization transformation of V. N. Dubinin. As an important part of our proofs, we obtain monotonicity and convexity results for special combinations of the Euler gamma functions, which appear to have a significant interest in their own right."

"The Effect of Model Similarity on Girls' Motor Performance," Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 24 (2): April 2005

Melanie Hart, Assistant Professor in Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences

Bio: Dr. Melanie A. Hart is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences. Her teaching assignment is predominately in the area of graduate and undergraduate physical education and sport pedagogy. Dr. Hart is involved in theoretical and applied research examining various factors, such as attention and the use of strategies that influence the learning of motor skills.

Abstact: This investigation examined the effect of model similarity on girls ' acquisition, retention, transfer, and transfer strategies of a novel motor task. Forty girls (mean age = 10 years) were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (model skill level) X 2 (model sex) factorial design using four treatment groups: (a) male skilled, (b) male learning, (c) female skilled, and (d) female learning. Quantitative data revelaed that participants observing a female model or a learning model transferred significanlty more learning strategies than did participants observing a male or skilled model. Qualitative results underscored the need to include models of similar sex, as well as learning models when instructing girls in motor skills.

"Marguerite, Countess of Blessington, Victims of Society (1837)," Silver Fork Novels, 1826-1841, vol. 4

Ann R. Hawkins, Assistant Professor in English

Bio: Ann R. Hawkins specializes in Bibliography, Book History, and Textual Studies. She has published scholarly editions of three nineteenth-century novels as well as articles on Disraeli, Byron, the British book trade and women writers. Hawkins was a 2004 New Scholar by the Bibliographical Society of America, and she has held fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Bibliographical Society of America, the Folger Shakespeare Library, and University of Virginia s Rare Book School.

Abstact: Best known today for her "Conversations with Lord Byron, " Marguerite Gardiner, Countess of Blessington was in her day a publishing phenomenon, earning more than 2000 per annum from her writing alone--a figure making her the most highly paid woman writer of her generation. This edition--with introduction, extensive bibliographies, textual notes, and annotations--is the first appearance of one of Blessington 's novels in print since the end of the nineteenth-century. Giving an insider view of London high life, _Victims of Society_ (1837) addresses hypocrisy of a society where one s virtue is determined by one s reputation, not one s personal morality.

"Marketing Gender and Nationalism: Blessington's Gems of Beauty/L 'Écrin and the Mid-Century Book Trade," Women 's Writing, 12.2 (2005): 225-241

Ann R. Hawkins, Assistant Professor in English

Abstact: This article examines Marguerite Gardiner, Countess of Blessington's savvy marketing of her poetry series "Gems of Beauty" (1836-40).The article focuses of the 1836 issue of "Gems", placing that text in the context of Blessington's other giftbooks, specifically the 1835 "Flowers of Loveliness" developed for Ackermann and Co. In addition to examining the type of woman that Blessington's poems create, the article considers how the poetry, physical characteristics of the volume and its illustrations create a unified marketing product. Ultimately the article addresses the volume's versions of gender and natiionalism and their place in nineteenth-century women's book market.

"Conserving the Diaries of Dr. Đặng Thùy Trâm"

Sara Holmes, Assistant Archivist and Conservator for Special Collections

Bio: Sara Holmes is Conservator for Special Collections and heads the Hoblitzelle Conservation Lab in the University Libraries. She received her M.L.S. and a Certificate of Advanced Study in Conservation of Library and Archival Materials from the University of Texas. She is also a certified archivist and has previously treated documents and materials ranging from court suits filed by slaves in bids to secure their freedom to the personal papers and notebooks of UT Tower sniper Charles Whitman.

Abstact: The diaries of Dr. Đặng Thùy Trâm were originally recovered and kept by American G.I. Frederick Whitehurst during the Vietnam War. Donated to the Vietnam Archive in 2005, the diaries required reattachment of boards and a few leaves. Most challenging was the design of an archival housing using appropriate materials that would meet the needs of preserving the books while honoring Dr. Trâm’s memory at the same time. Adapting Asian-styled book case traditions to the needs of the diaries, a single box was created to house both volumes as well as a small portfolio made to house the paper-cut stencil found inside one of the diaries.

"Digital Alloys of AlN/AlGaN for Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes"

Mark Holtz, Professor in Physics

Abstract: We report a systematic study of the optical and electrical properties of deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on digital alloy structures of AlN/Al0.08Ga0.92N grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy with ammonia. Digital alloys are formed by short period superlattices consisting of Al0.08Ga0.92N wells, 0.50 or 0.75 nm thick, and AlN barriers, 0.75 to 1.5 nm thick. For digital alloys with effective bandgap of 5.1 eV, average AlN composition 72%, we obtain room temperature electron concentrations up to 1× 1019 cm-3 and resistivity of 0.005 Ω·cm and hole concentrations of 1× 1018 cm-3 with resistivity of 6 Ω·cm. Light emitting diodes based on digital alloys are demonstrated operating in the range of 250 to 290 nm.